• History

    The history of island is quite recent for its origins and until XIX century it was out from the influence of the most European Powers so that Madagascar of XVI and XVII century became the ideal refuge for pirates that plundered the merchant fluts in transit to india. The colonialism and the increase of requests of sloves from Euripean powers influenced heavily on the international balances of Madagascar.Some Malagasy clans began to traffic in slaves in Europo, receiving in return gold and firearms. This influx of wealth led to the formation of the early kingdoms of the island; in particular, the Sakalava in the west gave life to the reign of Menabe and  Boina and Zana-Malata, ethnic origin of mixed European, could unify all the East in kingdom of  Betsimisaraka. These kingdoms was added in the XVIII century that the Merina, unified in the kingdom of Andrianampoinimerina, placing its capital at Antananarivo. His successor, Radama I, shook strategic agreements with the British, receiving military and economic support in exchange a series of favours to hinder the French presence in the area. In the  1824, Radama extended his domains up to the coast, becomig the first king of Madagascar. The different king  Merina that followed after Radama I had alternating attitudes between nationalistic and traditionalism closure (Ranavalona I) and pro-Europeanism (Radama II), oriented in different epochs towards the English or French too. In 1885, in the contest of colonial sharing of Africa, the British gave up any claim against Madagascar,leaving the field opened to the French. In 1890 France declared Madagascar like owns protectorate; an attempt at resistence of the queen of Ranavalona III was cut from  taken of the capital Antananarivo of french troops, in 1895. During the Second World War, Malagasy troops fought in France, Syria and Marocco. When France fell into the hand of Germans, Madagascar came under the control of  Vichy governement. In 1942 the island was invated by the United Kingdom which returned it to "French free" of the Gaull year after. In 1947, a separatist revolt kept busy for many months French forces. The rivolt was brutally cut, we are talking about 60.000 - 100.000 dead, but in the early 50's France began a series of reforms which permitted Madagascar a transition to the indipendence. On 14 October 1958 it was officially born the Republic of  Madagascar in the Communauté Française. On 26 June 1960 Madagascar finally become indipendent, as the first president Philibert Tsiranana. Tsiranana led an openly pro-French policy and seeks to preserve the status quo, causing discontent among the people of Madagascar. After the leaving of Tsiranana and a brief period of transition, the power passend into the hands of Didier Ratsiraka, who profoundly changed the state and the Malagasy foreign policy towards a pro-Soviet Socialism. Ratsiraka party became the only legally recognized party in 1977, and press freedom was reduced. TIhe regime of Ratsiraka begame to waver in the 80's, under the pressure of a strong economic crisis and the growing international isolation of the country. Ratsiraka gradually changed its policy, to hold the first multi-party elections in 1993. Ratsiraka and his closest rival, Albert Zafy, alternated to drive the country untill the election of 2001, which still saw to be in contrast Ratsiraka and Marc Ravalomanana,ended with mutual accusations of frauds and even armed clashes in the Country. There came out victorius Ravalomanana, and Ratsiraka was forced into exile. Recently in 2006 Ravalomanana was confirmed president of  Madagascar.
 
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